Straightforward Removals Click on any image for a larger view.

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BULLET EXTRACTOR, English, c. third quarter 19th century, unsigned but attributable to Coxeter of London. Measuring 9-1/2" (24 cm) overall (closed), the extractor has a polished steel probe / scoop, with opposable toothed shaft for securing the bullet. Using the finger pulls made of a fine alloy, one withdraws the shaft, inserts the probe into the wound until the bullet is touched and then surrounded by the spiked scoop, and finally squeezes the spiked shaft closed against the bullet and withdraws the instrument. Condition is fine noting a little rust spotting. We have had one other example of this form, that one by Coxeter "Inventor & Maker" (Tesseract Cat 28, Item 63). Longmore illustrates and describes the instrument in his book "Gunshot Injuries," and explains that it was much used during the Crimean War of the 1850's. (9456) $850.


Handsome American Eye-Testing Instrument Click on any image for a larger view.

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DE ZENG'S REFRACTOMETER, American, late 19th century, signed on the main tube "De Zeng's Refractometer, Cataract Optical Co., Buffalo, N.Y." This rare and complex eye-testing device has a particularly graceful design, standing 12-1/2" (32 cm) overall (extending to 20-1/2" (52 cm) by drawtube) on the cast iron tripod base. It is constructed of both plated and blackened brass, and nickel silver, and incorporates internal racked lens tube with calibrated Myopia/Hypermetropia thumbwheel, twin wheels of corrective lenses on a rotatable assembly driven by conical pinion and ring gear, and external sight, the whole instrument on tiltable mount. Condition is very fine. An unusual form of ophthalmic device, not listed in the standard references. (7494) $2400.


Electricity to Cure Everything Click on any image for a larger view.

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FINE PORTABLE ELECTRO-MEDICAL OUTFIT, Scottish, c. early 20th century, signed on a plaque "Robert Whitelaw, Surgical Instrument Maker to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen & Newcastle-on-Tyne." The outfit is housed in a cubical case of beautifully grained mahogany, 5" (13 cm) on a side, with plated carrying handle and self-latching side drawer. This compact device incorporates a rectangular molded and cut glass carbon / zinc voltaic cell, adjustable coil, vibrator, switch, and lacquered brass fittings and terminals. Accessories include connection wires, mahogany-handled applicators with choice of five shaped brass electrodes, spare carbon rod, and case key. Condition is fine. (9466) $595.


The Bleeding Arts Click on any image for a larger view.

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FLORAL DECORATED SPRING FLEAM, c. early 19th century, stamped "F.D." outside and engraved "XV" inside. This attractively decorated bleeding device is made of brass with shaped steel blade, spiral cocking spring, and spring-loaded trigger release. Measuring 2-1/4" (5.7 cm) overall, it is in fine functional condition, noting some surface oxidation to the steel. (7544) $750.


The Cure! Click on any image for a larger view.

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REMARKABLE HOME MEDICINE CHEST, English, 17th /18th century with probably later carving. The 15-1/2" x 13" x 6" (39 x 33 x 15 cm) oak fall-front wall or table chest has two shelves, the upper one buttressed supporting two drawers. Some of the hardware has certainly been changed over the years, but there remains a fine early shaped brass lockplate with working key. Overall condition is fine, noting a few age cracks.

Such early chests are rare, but the extraordinary feature of this one is the carving (rather in the Arts and Crafts style) on the front and two sides. Raised leaves, geometric banners and symbolic crosses are interwoven with the raised letters "He giveth medicine to heal their sickness. Acknowledge Him and He shall direct thy paths. / And now Lord what is our hope truly our hope is even in Thee."

A fascinating marriage of the curative powers of science and of religion. (7427) $6500.


Skin Temperature Click on any image for a larger view.

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MORITZ IMMISCH'S PATENT SKIN THERMOMETER, English, c.1885, signed "Maw, London, #10742, Patent." Measuring 1" (2.5 cm) diameter in its silvery watch case with hinged metal outer case, the thermometer reads from 68° to 113°F. (and 20­45° C.) with a precision needle indicator. The finest divisions are to 1/5°F. Patented in 1882, the thermometer was reliable, convenient, safe, and fast-acting. Immisch wrote "The action of the instrument depended on the opening and closing of a metallic tube which is filled with highly expansive liquids..." A rare instrument, in very fine working condition. (7437) $750.


Manual Nursing Click on any image for a larger view.

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MANUAL BREAST PUMP, American or English, c. second quarter 20th century, measuring 5-3/4" (15 cm) overall. The hand-blown glass body has a flared conical shape, with bulbous reservoir to one side, and is fitted with a now-quite-hard rubber bulb. Designed expressly to stimulate milk production, and to collect breast milk for bottle feeding, the pump is in fine condition. (9476) $95.


The Mechanical Pelican Click on any image for a larger view.

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THE "ATTRACTIF DESTANQUES" - A SORT OF DENTAL PELICAN OF MECHANICAL COMPLEXITY, French, c. 1865, stamped "Mathieu a Paris" and "Attractif d'Estanque, B'vt. S.G.D.G.," and stamped with a maker's mark and "26" and internally numbered "5." Finely shaped of steel, the device measures 9-1/4" (23.5 cm) overall, and features a spring-loaded grip activating a mechanical retraction of the upper serrated jaw. It is a nearly parallel motion, guided by linear slots, and brings the jaws together smoothly and securely. An adjustable spring arm controls tension between the jaws - a desirable feature because the tool provides enormous leverage. A swiveling flap allows the three-tyned upper jaw to be quickly replaced by a two-tyned one. Condition is fine noting light staining to the steel.

D'Estanque's instrument is of remarkable complexity, and remarkable rarity. It was offered in the Mathieu catalogue, and one is illustrated in Elisabeth Bennion's Antique Dental Instruments (plate 65). She writes: "An extremely complicated type of pelican with two handles was that designed by Eugene d'Estanque and patented by him in 1861. He illustrated it in L'Union Medicale in 1864 and it was made by Charriere and Mathieu with considerable mechanical skill...." (7397) $4950.


23 Exhibition Instruments of Minor Surgery Click on any image for a larger view.

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FULL RANGE OF FOLDING BISTOURIES, SCALPELS, LANCETS, AND KNIVES, French, c. third quarter 19th century, all signed "Luer," a uniform set of 23 instruments showing the wide variety produced by this famous Parisian firm. Ranging from 3" to 4-1/4" (7.5 - 11 cm) long (closed), they are constructed with exquisitely patterned tortoiseshell bodies housing polished steel blades with locking / latching mechanisms. Some have gilt brass linings beneath the tortoiseshell. There are single and double ones, exhibiting all manner of blades curved and straight, long and short, sharp and blunt pointed, even hatchet shaped. Several blades have removable silver sheaths, spring-loaded to function as a bistoury cache. There are various locking mechanisms, sliding, latching, and hinged. All are in excellent as new, unused condition, noting only two small chips to the tortoiseshell.

The instruments came to us via descent from the original collection of exhibition pieces made and held by the Luer firm, being their finest productions, shown at the great national and international exhibitions of the 19th century. An exceptional set. (9485) $5500./ the set.


American Sounding Click on any image for a larger view.

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FOWLER'S CURVED URETHRAL SOUNDS, American, c. 1885, signed on the case label "C.E. Riker, 1227 Broadway, N.Y." This is a complete set of six double-ended finely-polished metal sounds in graduated sizes, all contained in the original 12-3/8" (31 cm) long leather bound wood case. Condition is very fine, the case exterior a bit rough.

An identical set is listed in a late 19th century Sharp and Smith catalogue, as "Dr. Fowler's set of sounds" having "the regular Van Buren curve and taper." They are designed for dilating the male urethral canal, for locating strictures, and for sounding the presence of stones.

Charles E. Riker is listed at this NY address from 1880 until 1894 (see Edmonson). (9373) $595.


Quality Dental Care Click on any image for a larger view.

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PRISTINE POCKET DENTAL TOOL SET, probably English, c. first half 19th century. The 3" x 5" (8 x 13 cm) fitted carrying case is bound in fine dark fishskin and lined in red velvet. It contains the original complete set of six dental tools -- knife, lancet, plugger, and three scalers of quite different shapes -- all in polished steel with fine turned ivory handles. Condition is excellent noting hairline cracks to the ivory. An especially fine example of portable dental kit. (9415) $1150.


Handsome Electro-Therapy Outfit Click on any image for a larger view.

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ELABORATE ELECTRO-MEDICAL SET, French, c. 1900, signed on the box "Electricite, Madame Taberlet, Paris," on the galvanometer face "Charles Chardin, Paris," and numbered "B127." The 11" x 6-1/4" x 3-3/8" (28 x 16 x 9 cm) fine wood box opens out to reveal three batteries behind glazed windows, 11 connecting posts (labeled "+," and 1 to 10), a magnetic compass galvanometer with conversion table between degrees and milliamperes, and fitted compartments for the connecting wires, hand grips, conducting roller ball, and electric needles. Condition is very fine noting one small accessory lacking. A handsome, elaborate, and rather unusual electromedical outfit. (7466) $1150.


Personal Dosage Measurement Click on any image for a larger view.

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THE CHROMORADIOMETRE OF DR. H. BORDIER, French, c. 1910, contained in the original 6-5/8" x 5-1/8" (17 x 13 cm) fitted case lined in red silk and red velvet. The device was made by "Maison S. Maury, 7 Quai Claude-Bernard, Lyon," and consists of a printed card in a glazed gilt metal frame with suspension chain. Six colored paper windows are pasted along a central slot in the card, and a considerable supply of small comparison test disks are included. Condition is very fine and all original.

In use one glues a disk to the patient's skin or other tissue, irradiates with x-rays, and compares the disk's color with the standards along the slot, as a measure of dosage. The disks are made of barium platinocyanide, which changes color progressively from green to dark yellow-orange as a result of irradiation.

An early attempt to quantize radiation dosage, this was apparently the first commercial dosimeter. (9430) $1150.


Finely-Articulated Medical Lamp Click on any image for a larger view.

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EARLY ELECTRICAL EXAMINATION LAMP ON ARTICULATED ARMS, English, c.1925, signed in three places "Down Bros., London." This wall-mounting lamp extends from 14" to a maximum length of 27" (35 -69 cm), and is constructed of solid brass with a silver wash. Parallel-motion arms allow it to be raised or lowered, and locked in position by a spring loaded finger with rachet stops. It further swivels against the wall mount, and the always-horizontal lamp arm swivels at its mount. There are turned finials throughout in a sort of Eastlake design. The lamp head itself has a wood handle, swivels up and down, and is fitted with electric light socket, metal reflector, glass condensing lens (for throat examination), and switch with thermoplastic housing. Condition is very fine noting wear to the thin finish. A rarely found and quite handsome example of early electrical examination lamp. (7516) $2750.


French Ophthalmic Scotometer Click on any image for a larger view.

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THE SCOTOMETER OF ANTONELLI, French, c. 1900, in its original 4-3/4" x 3-1/2" x1-1/4" wood case covered in black fabric. The blackened brass instrument, with wood handle, measures 8-1/4" (21 cm) overall. It features a sighting hole with leaf diaphragm adjustable against a 1(1)15 mm scale, a large rotating wheel of eight colored glass filters (for use by daylight), and a superimposed wheel of eight opaque colored targets (for use by artificial light). In very fine functional condition throughout, the "scotometer" measures the perception of colors in the central vision field, enabling early diagnosis of certain optic nerve diseases. The inventor of the present instrument was Dr. Alberto Antonelli, well-published ophthalmologist in Paris. We are aware of one other example, in a private collection, and we find the device listed in a 1909 catalogue of Maison Luer, 104 blvd. St. Germain, Paris. A less elegant instrument, termed "Snellen's scotometer," is held in the Utrecht University Museum (see Eye and Instruments, p. 195). Most rare. (8419) $2250.


Finding the Cylindrical Axis of Eyeglass Lens Click on any image for a larger view.

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THE MADDOX AXIS-FINDER, FOR ASTIGMATIC EYEGLASS LENSES, English, c. 1900, signed "Maddox Cylinder-Axis Finder, Botwright & Grey, London." This 4" (10 cm) wide boxwood plate is fitted with a brass index arm reading against a 0(1)180 degree scale. A straight slot is bordered by a 0(1)9 linear scale plus edge groove. Condition is very fine. In use one places the frame of eyeglasses along the groove, and tilts the whole assembly to the right or left while viewing a distant vertical straight line through the eyeglass lens. The angle (measured on the inclinometer scale) at which distortion of the line disappears, gives the cylinder axis of the astigmatic lens. The inventor was the famous Dr. Ernest E. Maddox, an ingenious ophthalmologist with an international reputation. Botwright and Grey may have been the sole makers of this device, which was advertised by the Geneva Optical Co. of Geneva, New York. A later version is found in early 20th century John Weiss & Son London catalogues. (9372) $295.


19th Century Bullet Removal Click on any image for a larger view.

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GROSS' BULLET FORCEPS, American, late 19th century, signed "Tiemann & Co.," 9-3/8" (24 cm) long, of polished steel. These slim forceps terminate in a sharply toothed open cup and a toothed finger for securely gripping a lead ball (whether round or conical), or a steel covered bullet. But when closed, they present a blunt end, for delicate probing. Condition is very fine noting minor rust spotting. Dr. Samuel Gross was a prolific inventor, represented by no less than 17 instruments in the 1889 Tiemann catalogue. In 1859 he had authored the exhaustive two-volume work A System of Surgery - Pathological, Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Operative, complete with over 2300 pages and over 900 engraved illustrations. (8368) $695.


Eye Coordination Training Click on any image for a larger view.

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THE KEYSTONE EYE COMFORT STEREOSCOPE OUTFIT, American, c. 1937, by the Keystone View Co., Meadville, Penn. The handheld stereoscope itself is constructed of wood and metal, colored green with black trim, and has card carrier sliding along a distance scale. The set is complete with the original 12 stereograms mounted with silver photographic prints, the instruction manual, and the cardboard box. Condition is near mint throughout. The stereograms range progressively in difficulty of eye task, each explained in detail on the reverse. The outfit, "Sold Only on Prescription," is designed to "smooth and ease the co-ordinating action of two eyes and bring relief to many whose difficulties arise from inability to read, sew, or work comfortably." (8352) $395.

"Electricity is Life" Click on any image for a larger view.

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PULVERMACHER'S "PATENT IMPROVED SELF-RESTORABLE CHAIN BATTERY," American, c. 1885, signed on the terminals "Pulvermacher Galvanic Co." and "Electricity is Life." The 8-3/4" x 4-1/2" x 1-3/4" (22 x 11 x 4 cm) fitted wood case contains the two 27" (69 cm) long branches of this electromedical chain battery, each with 60 articulated brass links containing zinc cylinders insulated with twine. Two wood-handled brass tubes can be attached to the ends, and loaded with, for example, sponge balls as applicators. To activate the belt it would be dipped in vinegar. Condition is good noting darkening of the brass, the case fair. And most important, the outfit includes considerable documentation, with printed instructions, illustrations, and testimonials.(7449) $695.


The Cost of Beauty Click on any image for a larger view.

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FOOT-BINDING IN CHINA, first half 20th century, this life-size cast (or model) of a foot measuring 6-3/4" (17 cm) long, formed apparently of hard plaster with a heavy shellac coat. It is a left foot, and shows the large toe extending forward, the other toes curled under the foot as grown during years of constant tight binding. Condition is very fine.

This particular object was acquired in China, probably in the second quarter of the 20th century, by a Western physician who traveled and worked there. The process of foot binding was practiced in China, especially among the upper classes, from the 10th century onwards until banned in 1912. One estimate is that a grand total of two billion women had had their feet bound. The process was painful, involving breaking the bones of the arches and toes of the young girl's feet, then keeping them tightly wrapped as they developed. The resulting "lotus" shape was considered highly desirable, an object of beauty and the cause of the sexually attractive "Lotus Gait" swaying walk that resulted. (9452) $950.


By Cutler to Louis XVI of France Click on any image for a larger view.

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SMALL AMPUTATION SAW BY THE BEST, French, last quarter 18th century, signed "Grangeret, Paris" and with the maker's "crowned-H" stamp. Measuring only 11-1/2" (29 cm) overall, the saw is finely shaped of polished steel, set with a 5" (13 cm) long blade, a "butterfly" blade-tightening nut, and a fine eight-sided pistol grip handle of ebony. Condition is very fine with traces of old stains. The maker was Pierre Grangeret (c. 1731 - 1802), master cutler, recipient of the "crowned-H" mark in 1772, recorded as cutler to Louis XVI. This saw is a good example of Grangeret's superior craftsmanship -- it is comfortable in the hand, with good heft and balance, it is esthetically a pleasure to look at, and it seems eminently functional. It has an unusual diminutive size, clearly designed for younger patients or for finger amputations. (8469) $1350.


Surgical Grasping Click on any image for a larger view.

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THE CONVERGENT GRASPING-HOOK OF CHASSAIGNAC, French, c. 1875, made with polished steel fingers, "maillechort" metal guidetube and ferrule, and shaped ebony handle, with overall length of 11-1/8" (28.5 cm). It has internal snares, opened and closed by sliding its outer guide tube. Condition is fine and functional throughout, noting a hairline crack in the handle. Charles Marie Edouard Chassaignac (1805 - 1879) was surgeon in Paris; various instruments (notably his "ecraseur"), surgical operations, and anatomical parts bear his name. His "erigne" offered here was used to grasp and elevate the area to be treated or excised, especially recommended for ligature of hemorrhoids and removal of tumors. (8475) $975.


Patented Reflective Trade Sign Click on any image for a larger view.

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DRAMATIC OPTOMETRIST'S SIGN, French, c. early 20th c., the red grain-painted wood frame measuring 10-3/4" x 14-3/4" (27 x 37 cm), the glass panel backed with reflective material and reverse-painted or -printed in color, showing fitted eyeglasses, a cross-section of the eye, and the message "Execution Rapide des Ordonnances de M'rs. les Oculistes". It is signed in the corner, for the patented process "Luicolor B'te. S.G.D.G., 339 rue des Pyrenees, Paris." To the reverse is a hinged card support, as though to stand the sign in a window display. The reflective striations of the background give the sign a dramatic quality as one walks by. Condition is fine throughout. (8378) $1950.



"Open Wide" Click on any image for a larger view.

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CHEEK RETRACTOR, American, c. 1900, bearing the "SWS" logo of the S.S. White Dental Mfg. Co. of Philadelphia. Measuring 5-1/2" (14 cm) overall, this dental device has a very smoothly recurved pulling surface, and a lovely grained turned wood handle. Unusual, and in excellent condition. (9445) $220.


French Dental Operating Set Click on any image for a larger view.

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UNCOMMON DENTAL SET, French, c. 1875, signed in the case "H. Galante a Paris" and "Galante, Instruments de Chirurgie, 2 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, Paris," and on the major instruments (toothkey and two forceps) "Galante." This fine set comprises eleven tools, plus a small turned ebony box and an auxiliary tooth key claw of larger size. The eight-sided tapered wood handles are ebony; the lovely tooth key handle is turned horn. The full set is contained in its original 8" x 10" x 1-5/8" (20 x 25 x 4 cm) wood case covered in black fabric and lined with red chamois, complete with original key. The set is complete and all original, with the possible exception of the elevator. Condition is very fine throughout. The maker was Henri Galante, established in Paris in 1851. Catalogues are known from 1853 to 1885 (see Davis and Dreyfuss), and the firm had representatives in London and in Naples. A rare example of a cased French dental operating set. (7439) $2950.



Ways of Hearing Click on any image for a larger view.

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EAR TRUMPETS AND SPEAKING TUBES (clockwise from upper left)
"MISS GREENE'S HEARING HORN," American, c. 1900, by E.B. Meyrowitz, Optician, 104 East 23d Street, New York, so signed on the original box label. Constructed of black japanned "tin" (steel, actually), the "Audiat" assembles in two parts to a length of 18-1/2" (47 cm). It is a banjo-style ear trumpet, which collects considerable sound with its 5-1/4" diameter bowl. Condition is fine noting minor losses to the finish, and some to the rubber ear protector. (9392) $595.

COLLAPSIBLE EAR TRUMPET IN GUTTA PERCHA, English or American, second half 19th century, opening to 15" (38 cm) with the bell screwed into the central section and the ear tube withdrawn fully. In fine condition, unusual entirely in hard rubber. (9402) $450.

LONG SPEAKING TUBE WITH DIAPHRAGM, English, c. 1900, stamped " 'Ardente,' 309 Oxford St. W." Measuring 41-1/2" (105 cm) long, this instrument has flexible tube bound in black fabric, hard rubber speaking bell, and earpiece with large ebonized wood handle, nickel-plated assembly, and imitation tortoiseshell aperture, all in very fine condition. Unlike the ear trumpet and later hearing aid, which amplify all ambient sounds, the speaking tube was designed to selectively amplify a speaker's voice, one end being held by the speaker himself. (9412) $500.

COMPACT SPEAKING TUBE, English or American, late 19th century, 37" (94 cm) long, with narrow fabric-bound flexible tube, curved hard rubber mouthpiece, and curved hard-rubber ear insert, in very fine condition throughout. (9422) $395.

From the Charriere Museum Collection Click on any image for a larger view.

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SPECTACULAR EXHIBITION OPHTHALMIC SURGERY SET, French, c. 1860, boldly signed twice on the box and minutely on many of the instruments "Charriere a Paris." The black leather covered wood case measures 11" x 8" x 2" (28 x 20 x 5 cm), the edges with gilt bands. The interior is lined in luxurious green watered silk and green velvet, with gilt brass straps and hinges, and ivory knobs. The lower level is complete with 25 ophthalmic surgical tools with iridescent mother-of-pearl handles, gold or gilt ferrules, and polished steel blades, hooks, probes, etc., all different. Notable is the precision thumb-activated pincers (the serretelle of Dr. Desmarres, for operating on secondary cataracts) with its contrasting blued steel and gilt fittings. The lid is only half full, with nine original ophthalmic tweezers, forceps, clamps, etc., all exquisite in polished steel with gilt and blued fittings. All is original, and the condition is excellent noting only that the lid is very slightly warped.

The unused near-mint exhibition state of this set is attested to by the presence of various original retaining clips and the bold signed retaining strap, holding pieces in place. This set figured in the pedagogic museum of Maison Charriere, where the finest examples of their creations were deposited. This "historic collection" was a place where the showcases would be opened to young surgeons and their students, who could inspect and manipulate the rarest and the latest developments in their field. It had been proposed by Frederic Charriere as early as 1844; to translate from his notice of 1851, "(it) will present the methodical classification of my historic collection of old and modern instruments forming the complete arsenal of instrumental surgery assembled at great cost and classed by order of operations. This collection will be permanently housed under glass in a special room open to students and foreigners." Charrière even discussed having two formal instructive seances weekly (see Drulhon, Frederic Charriere, Fabricant d'Instruments de Chirurgie, 2008.) One of the most beautiful ophthalmic surgical sets we have seen and in the finest condition. (9382) $14,500.


Removing the Big Ones Click on any image for a larger view.

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LE CAT'S FORCEPS FOR EXTRACTION OF LARGE BLADDER STONES, English, mid-19th century, signed twice "Weiss, London." Measuring 11" (28 cm) long overall (minimum), these lithotomy forceps are made of grey steel with a shaped ebony handle. The ingenious linkage permits one to set the maximum opening by long screw, and to independently set and lock the forward opening, the "overbite" of the jaws. Both jaws are smoothly convex on the outside, and concave on the inside, the smaller relatively flat and smooth-edged, the other curved to a right angle and with sharply serrated teeth. It is possible to grip stones of a wide variety of shapes and sizes. This unusual form is in fine condition throughout. It is a variant of the forceps introduced by Claude Nicholas le Cat (1700 - 1768), surgeon of Rouen, professor of anatomy and surgery, medical author and inventor. Bennion (p. 87) illustrates two examples of large Le Cat stone extractors with the long screw adjustment, but with simple scissor hinge. Very large bladder stones were encountered at times; Le Cat writes of a calculus weighing over three pounds! (8408) $2400.



Eighteenth Century Atlas of Surgical Instruments Click on any image for a larger view.

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THE SURGICAL PLATES FROM THE "ENCYCLOPEDIE," French, second half 18th century, the bound volume measuring 10-3/4" x 16-1/2" (27 x 42 cm), comprising four pages of descriptive legends and 39 wonderful full-page plates. First is the splendid allegorical frontispiece, depicting a figure of Surgery carefully pruning a tree, while children tend to medicinal plants and perform other surgical interventions (one representing orthopedics). A stork flies overhead and all is centered on the statue of Esculapius. This is followed by quite detailed engravings of surgical instruments, some in use. This fine set is complete and in good condition. It is one section of the massive Encyclopedie ou dictionnaire raisonne de sciences des arts et des metiers by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, published from 1751 to 1766, with supplements and revisions in 1772, 1777, and 1780. It embodied the ideals of the Enlightenment, aiming to provide full access to human knowledge, to destroy superstitious beliefs, "to change the way people think." But it challenged Catholic dogma, and was officially banned in 1759, yet was permitted to continue complete publication. (8425) $950.





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